Remaining Woodland Plants   2 comments

  Remaining Woodland Vegetation

  Apiaceae (Carrot or Parsley Family)

 

Sium suave (Water Parsnip)

http://en.wikipedia.org/Sium_suave

    Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SISU2

 

  

Water parsnip has erect; purplish stems about 1.5 meters tall. The stems also have noticeable ridges. Leaves are compound each with 3-7 lance-shaped leaflets. Leaflet edges are finely serrate (Toothed). White flowers form a flat top at the end of the stem. The plant is edible however it is often confused with the highly poisonous water hemlock.

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 Aracaceae(Arum Family)

 

Calla palustris (Calla,Wild)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calla_palustris

Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CAPA

 

 

 A yellowish (Golden) flower head emerges from the base of a white bract (modified leaf). Large heart-shaped leaves extend laterally below the flower head. The flower head develops into a group of red berries later in the season. The plant is about 15 cm high. Plant tissue contains sharp needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals that irritate (physical contact) mucus membranes inside the mouth and throat. Flour can be made from ground rhizomes once the crystals have been inactivated by thorough washing or by heating the tissue.

Adaptations:

1.  Increased number of offspring. Underground stems (Rhizomes) give rise to new stems and roots, expanding the population size. This is an asexual process. Is asexual reproduction more efficient than sexual reproduction? Explain.

 2.  Physical means of defense. The plant forms sharp oxylate crystals in its tissues that irritate mucous membranes of potential prey (Herbivores). Provide another example of this type of interaction.

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Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk Cabbage)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symplocarpus_foetidus

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SYFO

 

 

 

Large, wide, simple leaves (50 cm long by about 50 cm at their widest point) are attached to the stem by short petioles. Rhizomes (Horizontal Stems) give rise to large numbers of roots that extend downward, literally pulling the plant deeper into the soil. Plants flower early in the spring often while ice and snow are still on the ground. Skunk cabbage is one of a few plant species that can raise (by cellular respiration) its internal temperature above ambient temperature, thus allowing the plant to melt surrounding ice and snow during the early reproductive period. The reddish spathe encloses the spadix that bears short stubby flowers. Plant tissue that has been cut or shredded releases a skunk-like smell. Leaf and stem tissue contain sharp, calcium oxalate crystals. When chewed, the needle-like crystals penetrate into the soft tissues of the lips, mouth and esophagus causing excruciating pain. Skunk cabbage has been used as an expectorant to treat respiratory problems such as nasal congestion and hay fever as well as other conditions such as rheumatism and nervous disorders.

Adaptations:

1. Early sexual reproduction: Skunk cabbage reproduces in the early spring at a time when predation is low, thus increasing the odds that their offspring will survive. Can you name another plant that does this?

2. Anti predator defense:  Cut or macerated plant tissue releases a skunk-like odor, thus deterring predators from eating the plant. Can you name another plant that uses a similar defense?

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Cornaceae (Dogwood Family)

Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry)

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornus_canadensis

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=COCA13

 

 

 

 

Bunchberry is an erect (about 15 cm tall) plant with 4 white bracts situated above a whorl of opposite attached leaves with short petioles. The leaf margin is entire. The unbranched above ground stem arises from an underground rhizome. A cluster of yellow-green flowers is formed in the center of the plant. Flowers are eventually replaced by clusters of green drupes (Berries) that  turn red. Berries are eaten by humans, deer and moose. Preparations made from berries have been used by certain native Americans to treat inflammation, fever and body pain as well as other ailments.

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Ericaceae (Heath Family)

Epigaea repens (Trailing Arbutus)

 

http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigaea_repens

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=epre2

 

Trailing arbutus is a creeping shrub that extends only about 6 cm above the forest floor. The spiny reddish stem bears thick, spiny, evergreen, oval leaves that are about 9 cm long. Sweet smelling white flowers with a yellow center (Stigma and style) arise from the stem. Trailing arbutus has been used by native Americans for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions such as indigestion, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

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Gaultheria procumbens (Teaberry or Wintergreen or Creeping Snowberry)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaultheria_procumbens

   Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GAPR2

  

  

 

 

Teaberry has small, evergreen, shiny, dark green leaves, about 2.5 cm long, arising from erect stems. When leaves are crushed or chewed a wintergreen smell or taste  is evident. Small, white, vase-shaped flowers may be present. Red, wintergreen flavored red berries develop from the flowers. Crushed leaves steeped in boiling water yield a fragrant tea that has been used to treat headaches and reduce fever. The active ingredient is methyl salicylate. The fruit is edible. Wintergreen at one time was commercially produced from this species.

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Equisetaceae (Horsetail Family)(Division Equisetophyta)

Equisetum sylvaticum (Horsetail, Woodland)

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equisetum_sylvaticum

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EQAR

 

 

Horsetails, about 11 cm tall, have jointed, upright, hollow, cylindrical stems with whorled branches arising from nodes (4-5 branches per whorl). Horsetails tend to be toxic. They were used by American colonists as scouring pads because of the silica in their cell walls. American Indians used preparations from the plant as an astringent and as a laxative.

Adaptations:

1. Anti predator defense: Silica in horsetail cell walls, that makes them useful as scouring pads, also makes them difficult to chew. Herbivores tend to leave them alone. Also, toxic compounds in horsetail tissues have the same effect.

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Gentianaceae (Buckbean Family)

Menyanthes trifoliata (Buckbean)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menyanthes_trifoliata

Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=METR3

 

    

Buckbean originates from a thick underground rhizome (Stem). Lance-shaped, alternate leaves are arranged in groups of three leaflets. Groups of white fringed flowers are attached to the upper part of a stalk that is about 30 cm long. Tea brewed from dried leaves or roots has been used to treat rheumatism, gout and digestive problems. Buckbean tissue contains phenolic compounds that can be toxic.

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Iridaceae (Iris Family)

 

Iris versicolor (Iris, Northern, Blueflag)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_versicolor

 

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=IRVE2

 
 

 

  

 

 

The erect stem, about 1 meter high, arises from a thick underground rhizome. Flowers consist of 3 re-curved sepals and 3 smaller petals. Flowers are blue with yellow and white markings at the base of the sepals. Sword-shaped, narrow leaves (about 1.3 cm wide) arise from the plant base.  Concoctions made from rhizomes have been used to treat coughs, colds and skin rashes.

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Lamiaceae (Mint Family)

 

Lycopus uniflorus (Water-Horehound, Northern)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycopus

 Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LYUN

 

  

 

 

This species has an erect, smooth, 4-angled stem about 0.7 meters tall.  Toothed (Serrate) opposite leaves occur at least on the upper part of the plant. Small white flowers, about 2 cm wide, form where leaves join the stem (Axil). North American Indians consumed cooked or pickled roots of this species. Preparations made from the plant have been used as a sedative and for other afflictions.

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Lilaceae (Lily Family)

 

Clintonia borealis (Bluebead Lily)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clintonia_borealis

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CLBO3

 

The Blue-bead Lily is an erect plant about 30 cm tall. There are 2-3 large basal leaves with parallel venation. Horizontal underground stems (Rhizomes) extend from the parent plant and give rise to new individuals. Pale yellow flowers are borne on leafless stems eventually forming bright blue berries. Young leaves are edible. American Indians used fresh leaves to treat external infections, burns, and sores. Tea made from the leaves was used to treat heart disease as well as other afflictions.

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Maianthemum canadense (Mayflower, Canada)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/canada_mayflower

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MACA4

 

 

 

The Canada Mayflower has an erect stem that is about 20 cm high. One to three heart-shaped, evergreen leaves, about 6 cm long are attached to the stem. Plants arise from shallow rhizomes that grow about 15 to 20 cm each year. Single leaves can also arise directly from the rhizome. There is a terminal cluster of star-shaped white flowers (about 25) on fertile stems. Flowers are replaced by green berries that turn red in early fall. Certain native Americans used preparations from this species to treat sore throats, headaches and as an expectorant.

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Maianthemum trifolium (Three-leaved False Solomon’s Seal)

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maianthemum_trifolium

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MATR4

 

 

 

This species is common in bogs, wet woods and in association with sphagnum moss. The plant has an erect stem about 11.5 cm high. Three, alternate, lanceolate leaves, about 7.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, arise from the stem; two are easily visible while the third basal leaf is more difficult to see. The leaves actually clasp the stem. Small, white flowers are loosely arranged at the end of the stem. The resultant berries are initially green and later turn blue.

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Medeola virginiana (Indian Cucumber Root)

 

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MEVI

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medeola_virginiana

 

 

Indian Cucumber plant has an erect stem about 0.5 meters tall. Two tiers of  leaves arise from the stem in mature plants. The lower basal tier has about 7 leaves while the upper bears about three. Yellowish flowers extend from the center of the upper tier of leaves. The green berries turn dark later in the season. The root extends at a right angle from the stem and  is edible either raw or cooked.

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Lycopodaceae (Club Moss Family)

Lycopodium clavatum Club Moss or Wolf-Claw)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycopodium_clavatum

 Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LYCL

 

  

 

Club Moss stems that can be up to 1 meter in length, lie on or close to the forest floor. Stems are covered with small (about 0.4 cm long) spirally arranged leaves. The prostrate stems send down roots at regular intervals. Plant tissue contains lycopodine, a compound that can paralyze motor nerves in mammals. It has been used by native Americans for a variety of ailments such as pain, fever, and as a diuretic.

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Monotropaceae (Indian Pipe Family)

Some place this species in the Family Ericaceae

Monotropa uniflora (Indian Pipe)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotropa_uniflora

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MOUN3

 

 

 

 

Indian Pipe has a white erect stem about 15 cm high.  The deciduous leaves are small and scale-like. A single white, nodding flower with separate petals, is situated at the stem tip. The plant lacks chlorophyll and derives its food saprophytically. Root infusions have been used as a sedative while leaf infusions have been used to treat colds and fever. Water extracts of whole plants have been used to treat bacterial infections.

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Orchidaceae (Orchid Family) 

Cypripedium acaule (Pink Ladyslipper)

 

Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cypripedium_acaule

Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=cyac3

 

The pink lady slipper has two basal, relatively wide leaves. A hairy reproductive stem arises between the two leaves to a height of about 30 cm and bears one pink flower about 7 cm long. A concoction made from Lady Slipper roots has been used to dull pain and induce sleep.

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Oxalidaceae (Wood Sorrel Family)

 

Oxalis montana (Wood Sorrel, Common)

 

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=OXMO

 

 

Common Wood Sorrel bears palmate compound, clover-like leaves. The white flowers, each about 1.5 cm wide, have reddish-purple veins; there are 5 petals and 5 sepals.

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Primulaceae (Primrose Family)

 

Lysmachia terrestris (Swamp Candles or Bog Loosestrife)

 

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LYTE2

 

 

This species has erect, hairy stems that are about 0.6 meters high. Leaves are simple, opposite and pointed at both ends. Swamp candle is anchored into the soil by a deep tap-root. Star-shaped, yellow flowers, each about 1.3 cm long, are arranged in a group at the top of the plant. Each petal has two red dots towards its base.

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Trientalis borealis (Starflower)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trientalis_borealis

 

   Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRBO2

  

 

 

 

  

 

This species has a star-shaped, white flower, about 1.3 cm wide on thin stalks that rise from the center of a whorl of bright green leaves (5-9), each about 7.5 cm long. The leaves are pointed at both ends. The plant, about 17 cm tall, emerges from a creeping rhizome. Sepals, petals, and leaves are arranged in groups of seven.

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Ranunculaceae (Crowfoot Family)

 

Coptis trifolia(Goldthread)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coptis_trifolia

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=COTR2

 

  

Goldthread is a short (about 8 cm tall) erect plant with palmate compound, evergreen, basal, leaves (3 leaflets to a leaf). Each leaflet has a toothed, scalloped margin. Leaves arise from a yellow underground rhizome. A single white flower is shown below. A preparation made from macerated rhizomes has been used to treat mouth sores and is considered to have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.

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Thalictrum pubescens (Meadow-Rue,Tall)

 

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalictrum_pubescens

 

   Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=THPU2

  
 
 
 

This species has a hollow, erect, green stem about 1-3 meters tall. The opposite green leaves are pinnately compound. The leaflets are 2-3 lobed. White flowers that lack petals develop on the upper part of the stem.

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Rosaceae (Rose Family)

Porteranthus trifoliatus  (Indian physic)

 

This species is an erect plant about 70 cm tall.  The compound leaves consist of three  toothed leaflets, each about 6 cm long. The flowers bear thin, white petals. Powder prepared from dried plant roots has been used by Native Americans as a laxative.

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Rubus hispidus (Swamp Dewberry)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubus_hispidus

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RUHI

 

 

Swamp Dewberry is a trailing shrub. Woody stems extend over the woodland floor. Erect stems (about 16 cm tall) arise from the trailing stem and bear shiny green, evergreen, compound leaves each of which has 3 or 5 toothed leaflets. The stems and twigs that extend from the stems bear bristles (Prickles) that curve backward. The small flowers are “rose like” with 5 petals. The fruit is a black (Dark Purple) raspberry.  The fruit is edible. Plant sap has been used to treat diarrhea and a root preparation has been used to treat coughs and to reduce fever.

Adaptations:

1. Anti predator Defense: The sharp curved bristles discourage unwelcome advances. Can you think of a similar anti predator defense in another species?

 2. Evergreen leaves: Generally leaves are retained for more than one season. The plant saves energy by not having to replace leaves as often as a deciduous plant.

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Rubiaceae ( Madder Family)

Galium trifidum Bedstraw (Northern, Three-lobed)

 

 http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Galium_trifidum

  Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GATR

 

 

This species has thin reclining stems that have whorls of 4 leaves at nodes along the stem. They have small greenish-white flowers with a 3-lobed corolla (All parts of the flower).

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Mitchella repens (Partridge Berry)

 

    Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MIRE

 

 

Partridge Berry often forms extensive mats over the forest floor. It is an evergreen creeping vine with round to oval leaves that have a characteristic white stripe that extends down the middle of the leaf. Two white flowers with a purplish tinge arise at the base of a leaf pair. The red berries contain 8 seeds. The red fruit is consumed by Grouse, Bobwhite, Fox, raccoon and deer.

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Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family)

 

Chelone glabra (Turtle-head, White)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelone_glabra

 

 Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHOB3

 

Turtle-head has an erect stem about 0.75 meters high. The toothed lance-shaped leaves are about 12.7 cm long. Clusters of whitish flowers occur at the tip of the stem. Each tubular flower, about 2.5 cm long, has two lips and resembles a turtles head. Tea brewed from the leaves has been used as a laxative and an appetite stimulant.

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Trillaceae (Wake-robin Family)

Trillium undulatum (Trillium, Painted)

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trillium_undulatum

Http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRUN

  

 

 

A short, erect stem arises from an underground rhizome. Three, whorled, leaves about 7.5 cm long are attached by a short stalk to the stem as shown above. Each oval leaf ends in a point. The flower bears three greenish sepals and three white petals each with a pinkish center. A root preparation was used by certain native Americans to aid in childbirth. A number of other medicinal uses have been recorded. Lightly steamed leaves are considered a delicacy.

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Violaceae (Violet Family)

 

Viola spp.(Violet)

   

 

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Posted February 4, 2011 by zottoli

2 responses to “Remaining Woodland Plants

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  1. Pingback: Research and Background Study on Unit 6: Adaptation and Variation | aldehydes

  2. Good article. I definitely appreciate this site. Stick with it!

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